Unkown Iran

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Iran History (2015/10/08)

The history of Iran, commonly known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

The southwestern part of the Iranian plateau participated in the wider Ancient near East with Elam, from the Early Bronze Age. The Persian Empire (Persia) proper begins in the Iron Age, following the influx of Iranian peoples. Iranian people gave rise to the Medes, the Achaemenids, the Parthians, and the Sasanians during the classical antiquity.


Once a major empire of superpower proportions, having conquered far and wide, Iran has endured invasions too, by Greeks, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols. Iran has continually reasserted its national identity throughout the centuries and has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC. The Medes unified Iran as a nation and empire in 625 BC. The Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC), founded by Cyrus the Great, was the first of the Persian empires to rule from the Balkans to North Africa and also Central Asia from their capital in Persis (Persepolis). They were succeeded by the Seleucid Empire, Parthians and Sasanians who governed Iran for almost 1,000 years, and would put Iran once again as the leading powers in the world, only this time amongst their arch rival, the Roman Empire and the successive Byzantine Empire.


In general history of Iran divided into two parts: before and after Islam Islam is divided.


Pre-Islamic civilizations:

The Elamite Empire

2500 - 644 BCE

The Median Empire

728 - 550 BCE

The Achaemenid Empire

550 - 330 BCE

Seleucid Empire

306 - c.150 BCE

The Parthian Empire

247 BCE - 224 CE

The Sassanid Empire

224 - 642 CE


Post-Islamic dynasties:

Islamic Conquest,

636 CE

Saffarid Dynasty,

861 - 900 CE

Samanid Dynasty,

819 - 999 CE

Turks and Mongols,

10th - 15th century CE

Ziyarids Dynasty,

927 - 1043 CE

Ghaznavid Dynasty,

962 - 1186 CE

Ismailieh (Assassins),

11th century CE

Safavid Empire,

1502 – 1736 CE

Afsharid Dynasty,

1736 – 1757 CE

Zand Dynasty,

1757 – 1794 CE

Qajar Dynasty,

1794 – 1925 CE

Pahlavi Dynasty,

1925 – 1979 CE

Islamic Revolution of

1979 CE