In 1976, UNESCO recorded 72,460 hectares of land in the region as a biosphere reserve. The overall description of UNESCO is that this biosphere store is located in the Caucasus mountains of Iran near the border with the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
The area, located between the Caspian, Caucasian and Mediterranean regions, includes mountains up to 2200 meters, alpine meadow grass, semi-arid plains, meadows and forests, rivers and springs. Arasbarran is home to about 23,500 nomads, which generally live in the buffer and transitional areas of the area. Includes economic activities in the habitat of agriculture, livestock, horticulture, beekeeping, crafts and tourism, but in urban areas business activities are also ongoing.
In the past, this area was also known as Qaredagh, and it is said that the name of Qaredagh has been made due to the vastness of the mountains of the region, with the explanation that Qare in the Turkish language imply the hordes, pluralities and interconnections. Although the Safavid sources did not mention Qaradagh in the prehistoric sources. Ibn Havgel referred to a place called "Siahkoh" in the book "Masalak and al-Mamalek", which lived next to a generation of "Torkan". But it seems that the black mountains are located along the northeastern shores of the Caspian Sea. Therefore, as long as no valid documents are found, Arasbaran's old history should be searched in the background of the dates of the two main cities of the region, Ahar and Kalibr.
In the past, in the Azerbaijani dialect, the city of Ahar was known as Arazbar or Arasbaran.
In the earlier historical writings, the name of Clayr is mentioned. Ali b. Hussein Mas'udi writes, in the Bazin area, he rose with the eternal disciples, the son of the town. After a series of defeats, Babak was besieged in his homeland ... Bazin, who was his birthplace, is still in Babylon in the year 323 AH. The book has been devoted to numerous articles in the book El Kamel. This is how it begins, Babak began calling for 201. His capital was the city of Bazd, and he killed many caliph armies.
Ruby Hamwi described eight years ago like this: It's somewhere between Azerbaijan and Eran. Babak Khorramdin, who rebelled against Mo'tabesh, has risen from here ... In this area there are pomegranates with unique beauty, figs, and grapes that dry in the tenors, because the sun always lies behind a thick cloud. In the description of Ahar, Ruby Hamwi writes that Ahar, despite its breadth, has a flourishing economy. The city is located between Tabriz and Ardebil and is managed by Amiri called Ibn Dasghyn ...
Both cities, to a certain extent, lost their importance during the Mongol Ilkhan times. Hamdollah Mostofi wrote in the middle of the eighth century AH: "Ahar is a small town and its cold enviroment ... It is described by Mastofi Kalibr: this is a mosque in the middle of a thicket, with a great mountain and a good castle, and at the foot of which is the castle, It is temperate and its water is from the river and it comes from the castle and grapes and fruits, and its people are crazy and crazy and Shafi religion ... In the explanation that the French translator brought the ruby's book instead of the Mughal word-of-mouth attempt, Mostofi is more acceptable at Ilkhan times
Ahar was at the center of attention of the Safavids. They tried to raise Azerbaijan as the source of their dynasty. In this regard, for example, King Abbas visited the city twice in the years 1605 and 1611.
Throughout the Qajar era, Arasbaran was run by Qajar warriors. Abbas Mirza for a while placed Ahar in the center of his command against the Russians. At that time, the tribes of Arasbaran provided a large portion of Iran's warriors, and suffered the same damage as the war. To illustrate the misery of Arasbaran's inhabitants in the early nineteenth century, we bring two reports of British diplomats here: James Morier, author of the "Adventures of Haji Baba Isfahani", who visited the factory two hundred years ago, writes that when we arrived at Asenandas, instead of the village, We found a collection of shelters that had escaped a number of evil villages from the Russian lands with strawberries. Here, the artificial pile was a conical shape attributed to Timor Lange, which the Iranians prepared by dragging the valleys around it in a bay to defend the shores of the Aaron .... Robert Meigan describes Kharmullo as such ... Khamarlu village, on the slopes Sloping mountains. Residential homes are sloping on a slope so that houses have only one flower wall, in which the 3-4-square-meter window has a window and a few pieces of broken logs are installed instead ... The residents were the poorest people I've ever seen. . Men and women had an old age and children were barely seven years old. They had a few sheep and goats, and had enough vineyards that were well kept until winter ... Ahar was badly damaged during the war. The travelers of the Arabs who had seen Ahar in the period between 1837 and 1837 described it as "a city in a wretched condition." According to their perception, the Qajar princes, who were sent to the city as the ruler of Qaradha, thought they would fill their pockets before the end of the mission.
Arasbarran was one of the constituencies of the constitutional movement of Iran, because Arasbaran tribesmen were involved in the armed conflicts of the movement; the command of the revolutionary and anti-revolutionary forces was respectively under the command of two Qaradaghai, Janisar Khan and Rahim Khan Chalibianlu. After the reign of the dynasty, Arashbaran began to decline. The Pahlavi kings, with an emphasis on Aryarism, tried to eliminate the Turkish identity of the people of the region. By changing the historical name of Karajeh to Arasbaran, Reza Shah also tried to destroy the historical identity of the region. In addition, the implementation of compulsory coercive policies of nomads led to a deadly blow to the economy. As a result, Arasbaran was dropped from the Iranian news center.
Announcement of a part of Arasbaran as a biosphere by UNESCO confirmed the tourist potential of the region. The beauty of the nature of Arasbaran has attracted even the attention of the westerners who have seen the region.
For example, a Canadian tourist described Clayber as a remote and sleepy city in the midst of a cluster of mountains whose peaks are hidden under the thick fog. ... is a great place; it's refreshing and green in the UK and beyond our mentality of the desert and dry nature of Iran. The climate of the Arasbaran is besides being influenced by the Mediterranean climate, it also extends beyond the influence of the Caspian and Caucasian climates, and because of The existence of high altitude differences in weather conditions and climate varies. The average annual rainfall in the Clayr-i-Meteorological Station was 461 mm in a 20-year period. The relatively high rainfall in this region, which is mostly in the form of snow, and its low evaporation, has caused a large stream of high mountains to originate and enter Aras River.
The whole of Kalibr is covered with tropical forests and lush meadows, and temperate mountainous climate. Most of the time the mountains of this city are covered.
The spring and summer of the beautiful nature of the Arasbaran forests give tourists a gift.
Multiple villages in mountainous areas, in addition to their natural beauty, offer a great opportunity to observe nomadic culture. Il Bastamlay is located in the ranges between Shoja Abad village and Babak castle (Qala Bazd), the mountains of the village of Aliabad (Kalibar), Chaprali and Aqdash are the most visited villages.
Lightweight Hiking shoes, one-day small backpack, gorgeous clothing for nature, baton for trekking, poncho for rainy days, water trough.
Geographically, Arasbaran has three different climates of the Caspian, Caucasian, and Mediterranean. The appearance and distribution of the vegetation of Arasbaran has a special legal status, so that the southern slopes are basically covered with pasture, and the forest is mainly observed on the northern slopes and between altitudes of 800 m to about 220 m, and areas with elevations of more than 2200 m and Less than 800 meters is pasture.
In the Arasbaran National Park, 220 species of birds, 38 species of reptiles, five species of amphibians, 48 species of mammals (such as whole and goat, boar, brown bear, wolf, "Vasha" (Lynx) and "Leopard") and 22 fish species are known. Of the species of the Arasbaran native birds, it is possible to mention the "Caucasian Caucasian Cockroach" of Quebec, Drag and Pheasant, and various types of birds and numerous countless waterfowl and drylands. Maral, an extinct species in the Arasbaran region, is also abandoned by the transfer of seven vertices from the Golestan National Park to an area of seven acres in the Aynaloo Research Center. Arasbarran, regardless of hunting, economic, social and cultural attractions, due to the presence of rare species of herbal and animal species, its pristine and extensive outbreaks, and its fragility and vulnerability in the years 1350 and 1352, were initially protected as protected areas and then protected areas. The oversight has been announced and has recently been promoted to Arasbaran National Park.
In the meantime, "Hornbeam" oak forests, along with varieties such as "Kikem", "Somaq", "Barberry", "Pomegranate", Wild apples and pears, Cornberry raspberries, representing densely populated climates of the wetland indicate the forest richness of the area they do. Farahat Forest Forest is also abundant in Arasbaran forests. Due to special and climatic and geographical conditions, the Arasbaran region has rich and varied vegetation and fungal cover.
Of the 400 species identified in Azerbaijan, about 1,400 species of their total live in the Arasbaran forests. In recent years, Dr. Mohammad Reza Asif has been collecting and identifying more than 250 species of fungi from the region during continuous and continuous sampling during several years. The truffle mushroom has been abundant in the Arasbaran area, especially in the vicinity of the village of Arylar. Gets It is noteworthy that the follower in the Turkish language means swollen, so that the mushroom grows slightly during the growth of its high soils, and the inhabitants find this sign of the fungus. In addition, the same name refers to the use of this fungus in the Arasbaran region.