Shooshtar mills and waterfalls are one of the most unusual examples that have been exploited for optimal use of water in ancient times. Iran's engineering icon and one of the most historic places in Iran. This site is a collection of dam, tunnels, canals and water mills, which is an industrial-economic complex and is part of the large complex of Shushtar's water structures, which has been repeatedly mentioned in historical books. The basis of the work of the complex is that the Gorgor dam blocks the river route and elevates the surface of the water to dig depletion of three tunnels drilled in the slate.
The following ancient artifacts have been recorded as the tenth work of Iran called the Shoshtar Historical Hydrological System, on the UNESCO World Heritage List of 1315:
Kolah Farangi Tower
Collection of waterfalls and water mills
Borje ayar Dam and Sabein Temple
Mahibazane Shoshtar Dam (Khoda-afarin Dam)
Bande Lashgar Bridge Shahali Bridge
By forming the base of hydroelectric structures and expanding research activities around these structures, the first file of Shooshtar mills, which had been on the list for the international registration of Iran for many years, was originally prepared. But the suggestion and opinion of experts from the UNESCO World Heritage List that the mill site is only part of the interconnected aqueduct complex in Shushtar has been commissioned for the Shoshtar Historical Aquatic System.
This case was presented to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee after its completion and successful competition compared to other proposed works by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. Eventually, at the annual meeting of the committee members on June 26, 2009 in Seville, Spain, this case was registered with the criteria 1, 2 and 5 as the Shoshtar Historical Hydro System in the UNESCO World Heritage List of 1315.
One of the famous travel writers who praised Shushtar's wonders is Ibn Battuta. He visited the city with a scholar who was surprised by their knowledge and knowledge. She has named Shushtar, Arabic and famous as Toaster or Tester. . He also mentions the greatness of the Shushtar bridges. They attribute the new Shushtar to Ardashir Babylon, and during this period Shushtar is situated as an island between the waters and the vast blue architecture of the canals, bridges and mills at its corners Were formed.
After he narrated the history of Shapur Sassani, the Development of Shushtar was completed and this city was the brightest historical period of its life, and with the equipping of irrigation facilities, agriculture was booming in this city. Shoshtar can be considered a museum of water structures and structures that are interdependent in terms of performance and, therefore, have an unbelievable city all over the world.
In the summer of 87, the Shushtar Aquatic Structures included: Mizan Dam , Kolah Farangi Tower,Dast-Konde-Gorgor River,Gorgor Bridge,Collection of waterfalls and water mills,Borje ayar Dam and Sabein Temple,Mahibazane Shoshtar Dam (Khoda-afarin Dam),Salasel Castle,Darion Channel,Shadravan Dam,Khak Dam,Bande Lashgar Bridge Shahali Bridge,Sharabdar Dam The UNESCO World Heritage List was named as the tenth work from Iran.
The earliest known works in Shushtar related to the Paleolithic and prehistoric times. This city was especially valued during the Elamite period due to its close proximity to the Choghazanbil Temple and was founded during the Achaemenid era of Mozdarian and its aquatic structures. Shushtar was the capital of the local rulers of Khuzestan during the Parthian period, and during the Sassani period it was considered one of the most important centers of Khuzestan.
In the south of the waterfall, a stone staircase with over 200 steps has been built and the waterfall area is connected to residential areas overlooking the complex. Herodotus (born 484 - the death of 425 BC) also considered the staircase two thousand and five hundred years ago as a treatise, and there are stones written along its path, which is an ancient dating of it. In the stairs of rooms there are places where water bodies are located. The dates of these chambers are estimated more than 4 thousand years, and the architecture and its short ceiling confirm the room of the guardians of these chambers.
These chambers also have another important feature: those windows are parallel to the waterfalls, as if they were embedded in stone windows only for the sight and day of the waterfall openings.
The triple tunnel draws water into the collection and is divided into several channels, which, after turning the mills wheel, water flows into cascades into pond areas. One of the most prominent features of the complex of mills and waterfalls is its proximity to the historic texture of Shushtar.
In addition to industrial uses, the site also provided the residents with water in dehydrated days. A very unique and unique visual feature in this collection, with its particular fringe, is that the water from the effluent mills pours into beautiful pond areas like beautiful waterfalls, offering eye-catching and eye-catching views over the eyes of any viewer. it creates.
There is also a beautiful landscape on the back of the dam where the three well-known SeKoreh, DahaneShahr and Belitty are well-drained. The complex of Shooshtar mills and waterfalls is one of the world's largest engineering and technical masterpieces. This masterpiece of engineering is unique both in Iran and in the world. Undoubtedly, given the importance of the city of Shushtar during periods of special interest and attention to the construction of a water facility in the area, which uses sophisticated engineering techniques, it is determined by us that the construction of the mills belongs to the ancient era and even to the age Sassanians.
In addition to the above mentioned, some of the complexities that exist in the design of water supply tunnels are for exploitation other than land use, such as irrigation. The triple tunnels behind the graver bridgehead have been assigned the task of transferring a certain volume of water to move the blades of the mill. The complex of Shooshtar mills and waterfalls is on the way of the Gorgor River, which is itself a masterpiece of ancient engineering and engineering. The Gregorian River is completely in the shape of, and its construction is attributed to Ardeshir Babakan, the Sassanid king. But in archaeological studies, this history has fallen behind. The privileged position and proper living conditions in Shushtar, due to its proximity to the Karoon River, provide good facilities for the action being taken in this area.
Along the entrance to the accelerator channel, the entrance to the water mills is made of chambers made of stone carvings and sandy rocks. These chambers are called Chavdvn or the same nesting place, and in the past the place of rest was on the hot summer days of Shushtar. These chambers In addition to the small windows that are made on its walls, there is also a window up the ceiling in the ceiling. The windows of these windows are also such that, in addition to monitoring the big stone mill, the rate and speed of the water entering the acceleration chamber The donor also sees the water and also supervises the work of the workers "transporting wheat", "carrying bran" and "collecting bran". "Shovadown" was a place of entertainment and nightlife of Shushtar people a few years ago and was welcomed by families on the long nights of Khuzestan's winters.
Spring is the best time to visit Shushtar Aquatic Structures.
If you want to visit the Shushtar-e-New Town, which won the International Architectural Award in 2000, or see the beautiful nature of the Karoon's banks, enjoy the beautiful plain of the flower and enjoy a whole other sight. Be sure to visit Shushtar Travel
Differrent parts of the collection: Mizan Dam, Darion River
Shadravan Dam, Gorgor River, Dokhtar Dam, Dara Dam.
The Sharabdar Dam is located in the south of Shushtar and is located on a branch of the Darion River called theReghat River. We see this structure between the two important structures of the Lashgar Bridge and the Mahiazan bridge, which is located on the southern side of the fence. This bridge is registered with the number 4218 on the national list of works.
The Mizan Dam is a very important work in the Shooshtar Historical Aquatic Buildings, which divides the Karun River into Shatit and Gorgor branches with a ratio of 4 Dong and 2 Dong. This paragraph is numbered 2331 in the national list of works.
Gorgor River is an artificial branch of the Karun River, which separates from Karoun River north of Shoushtar and leads southward. This creek with the number 17599 is on the national list of monuments.
The Darion creek was drilled in Dariush I Achaemenid period and it was the duty of irrigation in the Mianab Shooshtar plain. This creek is numbered 4141 in the national list of monuments.
The Mahibazan Dam have been built in the historic city Dastva and in order to keep the water level high. This clause is numbered 4207 in the national list of works.
The Dokhtar Dam is based on the last mountain passage through which the Karoon River crosses it.
The Dara Dam is made in the Mianab area and on the Gorgor river and is related to the Achaemenian era.
Inputs are the main components of the set that allow access to the collection, due to the low level of mills from the surrounding land, access to stairs is only possible.
The entrance set consists of three main entries: north, west and east.
1- Western Entrance (Western Staircase): The way to access the ancient texture and surrounding houses with the collection. Using this staircase, the people of the area provided their drinking water with musk. The characteristic of this staircase is the use of natural effects on the earth. So that the staircase width varies from 1.5 to 2.30 m in relation to the land complications. It also uses a piece of stones with varying dimensions of sandstone and is a mortar used in a flower step or a mixture of flowers and lime.
2- North Entrance (Main Entrance): The main step in the northern part is with a steep slope, which in the past was the livestock passageway. These steps pass through the sub-entrance of the coupler (the coupler was told to the officer who stood by the governor of the city under the sojourn and received tax from the owners of the livestock). A branch of the staircase extends from the eastern direction, which leads to the power plant. "This staircase, built in 1332, during 48 hours for the Shah's exclusive visit to the power plant, is known as the Shahi Solomon.
3- The linkage of the eastern side to the city's texture: This slope has been used more frequently for the transport of livestock for the transport of cargo to the eastern side mills, which in the long run was caused by unauthorized embankments as inappropriate slopes. Come.
Sabat is Archeological vaults and decorative bricks are working. In the waterfall complex, there are two Sabat places in the past.
The inputs of a series of Shushtar aquatic structures make it possible to make access to the collection accessible only through stairs.
Source: Reporter Club
Photos from Mashregh News and Mehr News Agency.